Attitude to mental disorders changed radically through the 19th Century as more was discovered about their physical and psychological causes. Neurology and psychiatry were established as a branch of Medical Science, and psychological treatments began to emerge. Mental health and taking psychotherapy.
The format of history mental disorder was considered as to be incurable. Madness Mania was generally regarded as a congenital abnormality and melancholia depression as a personality disorder caused by the imbalance of the humour. Rather than being given treatment the mentally ill where open isolated merely from society.
A New Outlook
In the 19th Century a more enlightened approach to mental health arrows as a result of a greater understanding of the brain and its functions. New branches of medicine developed, including neurology which viewed mental disorders as having physical or Anatomical causes that could be treated and cured. Toward the end of the century, the idea emerged that mental disorders might have a psychological cause and so would need psychological treatment. This shift in thinking was inspired by the work of several neurologists in Europe including Jean-Martin Charcot, from France who describes the physical characteristics of the human brain and studies the effects of hypnosis.
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Charcot’s research then influences Austrian physician Josef Breuer and his colleague Neurologist Sigmund Freud. Fried used hypnosis on patients to treat them for what are now termed affective disorders. Affective disorders include depression bipolar disorder and Manya and a variety of anxiety disorders such as phobias panic attacks and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Freud developed the psychodynamic therapy in which he divided The Mind into the conscious and unconscious. He believed that the conflict between the two areas causes many mental disorders. He thought that hypnosis would help him unlock the contents of the patients’ unconscious mind to help resolve this conflict. Freud also developed a method of psychoanalysis a talking therapy. Dementia is not a mental disease, rather it has much difference with Alzheimer’s Disease.
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Based on the Breuer’s successful treatment of his patient Anna O which became the model for any types of psychotherapy in the 20th century. Sigmoid Freud’s pioneering work attached many followers. Including the Swiss psychotherapist Carl Jung and the Australian doctor and psychologist Alfred Adler. A different version of the talking therapy begins to emerge. Incorporating ideas from various branches of psychology. However, psychoanalysis remains the primary form of psychotherapy until after World War 2. There are some tests to differentiate Alzheimer’s Disease from Dementia.
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Bhartiya Pappenheim known as Anna – O. Bertha Pappenheim are German social worker, first experience symptoms of history include headaches and hallucinations while she was caring for her ailing father. She was treated by Josef Breuer, who encouraged her to talk freely and Express Her thoughts and feelings. Pappenheim dubbed this therapy a talking cure. Her case study was later published in studies on hysteria that Breuer wrote with Freud in 1895.
1 in 4 people worldwide suffers from mental or neurological disorders at some point in their lives.
Advancement in therapy
In the 1950 summer psychologist question the validity of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic therapy and even the very notion of psychoanalysis as an effective therapy. Although the idea that psychological problems should be treated by psychological means rather than drugs or surgery was when established their different approaches to the treatment based on the development of the cognitive and behavioural psychology. Although the idea that psychological problems should be treated by psychological means rather than drugs or surgery was when established, there were different approaches to the treatment based on the development of cognitive and behavioural psychology. Rather than developing into unconscious new therapies found more practical ways of changing the behaviour or thinking that affect the patient’s mental well being. Thereby helping them deal with their problems.
Several cognitive and behavioural therapy were developed toward the second half of the 20th century. All of which came together in the cognitive behavioural therapy in short CBT. CBT pioneered by the American psychoanalyst Aaron Beck. Under the guidance of a therapist, patients learn to understand distressing thought patterns and find strategies to modify the way in which they react. More recently there has been a movement of positive psychology. Emphasising mental health rather than mental disorders.
The word “happiness“, would lose its meaning if not balanced by sadness said By Carl Jung Swiss psychotherapist.